Zanthoxylum clava-herculis

Family:RUTACEAE
Species:Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
Common Name:Southern Prickly Ash; Hercules' Club; Pepper Bark
Habitat:**
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Tree
Duration:Perennial
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:ZACL
Plant Notes:Toothache Tree is a native deciduous tree in the Citrus family (Rutaceae). It is found primarily in the Black Belt region of Central Alabama, and along the coast. Toothache Tree occurs along fence rows, around cave, and on shell mounds. It is almost always found on calcareous soils. Toothache Tree is a small to medium tree reaching heights of 30-40 feet. The bark is thin, smooth, and gray in color. It has numerous corky spine-tipped pyramidal warts. Leaves are alternate, petiolate, and pinnately compound with 7-9 leaflets. The leaflets are elliptic to lanceolate in outline with toothed margins. The rachis of the leaf may be armed with spines. Flowers are produced in terminal racemes. Individual flowers are small and yellow green in color. They have 5 small petals. Toothache Tree is dioecious (having male and female flowers on separate trees). The fruit is a follicle that splits open to reveal a shiny black seed. Chewing small strips of bark or leaves will numb the mouth and has been used as a home remedy for toothache. Extracts of the plant show some promise as an anti-biotic. Toothache Tree leaves are the larval food plant for the Giant Swallowtail (Papilio cresphontes). Toothache Tree is sometimes available from nurseries specializing in native or medicinal plants. It prefers a well-draining soil in full sun. Plants should be placed away from walkways or other areas where people might accidently grab the spiny trunk.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Native, FAC (NWI)
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyRUTACEAE - Citrus/Rue family
Genus Zanthoxylum
Species Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus - Southern Prickly Ash; Hercules' Club; Pepper Bark

Citation

Citation ZANTHOXYLUM CLAVA-HERCULIS Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 270. 1753.
Basionym: **
Type: TYPE: Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus Lectotypified by Rehder, J. Arnold Arbor. 26: 72. 1945.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Fagara caroliniana Fagara caroliniana (Lamarck) Engler, in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3(4): 117. 1896.Zanthoxylum carolinianum Lamarck 1786. 
Fagara clava-herculis Fagara clava-herculis (Linnaeus) Small, Fl. S.E. U.S. 675, 1333. 1903.Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus 1753. 
Fagara fraxinifolia Fagara fraxinifolia Lamarck, Tabl. Encycl. 1: 334. 1792.Zanthoxylum fraxinifolium Walter 1788, non Marshall 1785. 
Kampmania fraxinifolia Kampmania fraxinifolia (Lamarck) Rafinesque, Med. Repos., ser. 2. 5: 352. 1808.Fagara fraxinifolia Lamarck 1791; Zanthoxylum fraxinifolium Walter 1788, non Marshall 1785. 
Pseudopetalon glandulosum Pseudopetalon glandulosum Rafinesque, Fl. Ludov. 108. 1817. LOUISIANA
Zanthoxylum aromaticum Zanthoxylum aromaticum Willdenow, Sp. Pl. 4: 755. 1806.  
Zanthoxylum carolinianum Zanthoxylum carolinianum Lamarck, Encycl. 2: 39. 1786. SOUTH CAROLINA:
Zanthoxylum fraxinifolium Zanthoxylum fraxinifolium Walter, Fl. Carol. 243. 1788, non Marshall 1785. SOUTH CAROLINA:
Zanthoxylum glandulosum Zanthoxylum glandulosum (Rafinesque) Rafinesque, Med. Fl. 2: 116. 1830.Pseudopetalon glandulosum Rafinesque 1817. 
Zanthoxylum lanceolatum Zanthoxylum lanceolatum Poiret, in Lamarck, Encycl., Suppl. 2: 293. 1811. PUERTO RICO
Zanthoxylum macrophyllum Zanthoxylum macrophyllum Nuttall, N. Amer. Sylv. 3: 10. 1849.  
Zanthoxylum tricarpum Zanthoxylum tricarpum Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Amer. 2: 233. 1803.Zanthoxylum fraxinifolium Walter 1788, non Marshall 1785. 

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Baldwin, Butler, Choctaw, Colbert, Conecuh, Dale, Dallas, Greene, Hale, Lowndes, Marengo, Mobile, Montgomery, Pickens, Sumter

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: AUA, JSU, SAMF, TROY, USAM, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: -

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
TROY000008818 Lowndes 01 Jun 2007 Alvin R. Diamond
17682
TROY
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
JSU132873 Mobile 17 May 1974 Kenneth E. Landers
RDW-2649
JSU
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
TROY000032873 Montgomery 22 May 2011 Alvin R. Diamond
22154
TROY
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
72014 Lowndes 19 JUN 2009 SCHOTZ, ALFRED
2137
AUA
ZANTHOXYLUM CLAVA-HERCULIS L.
USAM000014119 Mobile 27 Oct 1973 Michael G. LeLong
7398.1
USAM
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
UWAL0003981 Hale 15 Jul 2007 Brian R. Keener
3763
UWAL
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis L.
70470 Greene 8 AUG 2009 KEENER, BRIAN R.
5554
AUA
ZANTHOXYLUM CLAVA-HERCULIS L.
TROY000040772 Dallas 18 Jun 2011 Brian R. Keener
6518
TROY
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
TROY000034428 Hale 01 May 2010 Brian R. Keener
5931
TROY
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
UWAL0016413 Montgomery 06 Jul 2014 Alvin R. Diamond
25286
UWAL
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
USAM000014114 Baldwin 08 Jul 1967 Michael G. LeLong
4117
USAM
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
USAM000014117 Mobile 15 Nov 1977 T. Daugherty
s.n.
USAM
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
UWAL0003978 Butler 20 May 2009 A.R. Diamond
20729
UWAL
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis L.
JSU132872 Colbert 7 Oct 1972 Kenneth E. Landers
s.n.
JSU
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
TROY000023305 Marengo 02 May 2008 J. Kevin England
771
TROY
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
JSU132874 Mobile 3 Jun 1970 R. Kral
39633
JSU
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
USAM000014113 Mobile 07 Aug 1981 Michael G. LeLong
12225
USAM
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
UWAL0003983 Marengo 2 May 2008 J. Kevin England
771
UWAL
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis L.
19235 Marengo 19 JUL 1969 MOORE, HAROLD D.
300-69
AUA
ZANTHOXYLUM CLAVA-HERCULIS L.
61828 Choctaw 15 JUL 1995 CROUCH, VIRGINIA E.
1445
AUA
ZANTHOXYLUM CLAVA-HERCULIS L.
TROY000039691 Montgomery 06 Jul 2014 Alvin R. Diamond
25286
TROY
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
TROY000034078 Dale 15 Jun 2011 Jason Chesser
s.n.
TROY
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
TROY000032303 Greene 08 Aug 2009 Brian R. Keener
5554
TROY
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
UWAL0002953 Lowndes 20 May 2010 Brian R. Keener
6008
UWAL
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis L.
44955 Conecuh 26 JUL 1986 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
2652
AUA
ZANTHOXYLUM CLAVA-HERCULIS L.
60697 Mobile AUG 1963 DAVIS, DONALD E.
AUA
ZANTHOXYLUM CLAVA-HERCULIS L.
UWAL0012083 Dallas 18 Jun 2011 Brian R. Keener
6518
UWAL
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
UWAL0004917 Montgomery 22 May 2011 A.R. Diamond
22154
UWAL
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
JSU132870 Baldwin 15 Oct 1982 R. D. Whetstone
12843
JSU
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
TROY000028354 Butler 20 May 2009 Alvin R. Diamond
20729
TROY
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
JSU140406 Colbert 07 Oct 1972 Kenneth E. Landers
s.n.
JSU
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
USAM000014118 Pickens 02 Aug 1967 Ross C. Clark
17203
USAM
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
UWAL0003982 Lowndes 1 Jun 2007 A.R. Diamond
17682
UWAL
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis L.
JSU132871 Colbert 7 Oct 1972 Kenneth E. Landers
s.n.
JSU
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
UWAL0003980 Hale 1 May 2010 Brian R. Keener
5931
UWAL
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis L.
TROY000034114 Lowndes 20 May 2010 Brian R. Keener
6008
TROY
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
UWAL0003979 Greene 8 Aug 2009 Brian R. Keener
5554
UWAL
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis L.
UWAL0004974 Butler 10 Jun 2011 A.R. Diamond
22235
UWAL
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
JSU132875 Mobile 17 May 1974 Kenneth E. Landers
s.n.
JSU
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
UWAL0003985 Sumter 6 Oct 1993 Lee Stanton
B-95
UWAL
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis L.
JSU132869 Baldwin 27 Sep 1985 T. L. Shaddix
042
JSU
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
TROY000023492 Hale 15 Jul 2007 Brian R. Keener
3763
TROY
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
USAM000014120 Mobile 27 Oct 1973 Michael G. LeLong
7398.2
USAM
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
61380 Choctaw 31 MAR 1995 CROUCH, VIRGINIA E.
1343
AUA
ZANTHOXYLUM CLAVA-HERCULIS L.
13877 Dallas 4 JUL 1969 ORR, HENRY
AUA
ZANTHOXYLUM CLAVA-HERCULIS L.
TROY000032991 Butler 10 Jun 2011 Alvin R. Diamond
22235
TROY
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
TROY000023306 Conecuh 19 Jul 2008 Alvin R. Diamond
19571
TROY
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
SAMF0003384 Lowndes 20 May 2010 Brian R. Keener
6008
SAMF
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Linnaeus
UWAL0003986 Sumter 6 Oct 1993 Lee Stanton
B-94
UWAL
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis L.
52804 Mobile 7 MAY 1991 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
7364
AUA
ZANTHOXYLUM CLAVA-HERCULIS L.
UWAL0003984 Sumter 3 May 1999 T. Stundon
B-173
UWAL
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis L.
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