Endodeca serpentaria

Family:ARISTOLOCHIACEAE
Species:Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
Common Name:Virginia Snakeroot; Turpentine Root; Virginia Dutchman's Pipe
Habitat:Hardwood or pine forests, woodland edges, and sandhills.
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Herb
Duration:Perennial
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:**
Plant Notes:Turpentine Root is a native herbaceous perennial in the Birthwort family (Aristolochiaceae). It can be found throughout Alabama. Turpentine Root occurs in a variety of habitats from rich hardwood forests, to pine forests, to scrub oak woods, and secondary woods. It has an erect stem up to 1 foot in height. The stem is green and either glabrous or pubescent. Leaves are alternate, petiolate, and highly variable in shape. Leaves vary from linear lanceolate to ovate in outline. They have truncate or cordate bases and glabrous or pubescent surfaces. Flowers are located near the base of the stem. The flowers are often produced beneath the leaf litter. Some flowers are cleistogamous (they never open). The flower is composed of a leathery calyx and lacks a corolla. Flowers are bent in a curved pipe shape with a flaring rim. Flower color is purple-brown spotted with lighter purple, green, and white. The fruit is a capsule. Turpentine Root is highly variable in leaf shape, and several species/varieties have been described. Individuals in the same population can vary greatly. The thick cord-like roots of Turpentine Root have a strong odor of pine sap, giving the species its common name. The dried root has been used in herbal medicine for things such as snake bite, rheumatism, worms, toothaches, sore throats, fever, sore noses, and colds, as a tonic. Large doses can be fatal.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Native, FACU (NWI)
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyARISTOLOCHIACEAE - Birthwort family
Genus Endodeca
Species Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque - Virginia Snakeroot; Turpentine Root; Virginia Dutchman's Pipe

Citation

Citation Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque, Med. Fl. i. 62. 1828.
Basionym: Aristolochia serpentaria Linneaus
Type: Without data, Kalm s.n. (lectotype: LINN 1071.7). Lectotypified by Pfeifer, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 53: 128. 1966.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Aristolochia arborescens Aristolochia arborescens Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 960. 1753. VIRGINIA: Without data (lectotype: Plukenet, Phytographia t. 78(1). 1691). Lectotypified by Reveal & C. E. Jarvis, Taxon 58: 978. 2009.
Aristolochia convolvulacea Aristolochia convolvulacea Small, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 24: 335. 1897. GEORGIA: Muscogee Co.: Columbus, s.d., Boykin s.n. (holotype: NY).
Aristolochia officinalis Aristolochia officinalis C. Nees von Esenbeck, Pl. Offic. t. 144. 1828.  
Aristolochia serpentaria var, laxa Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus, var. laxa Duchartre, in de Candolle, Prodr. 15(1): 434. 1864. Without data (holotype: LE; isotype: MO?).
Aristolochia serpentaria var. bartonii Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus, var. bartonii Duchartre, in de Candolle, Prodr. 15(1): 433. 1864, nom. inadmiss.Endodeca bartonii Klotzsch 1860, nom. illegit.; Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus 1753. 
Aristolochia serpentaria var. hastata Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus, var. hastata (Rafinesque) Duchartre, in de Candolle, Prodr. 15(1): 434. 1864.Endodeca hastata Rafinesque 1838; Aristolochia hastata Nuttall 1818, non Kunth 1817 
Aristolochia serpentaria var. nashii Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus, var. nashii (Kearney) Ahles, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 75: 130. 1959.Aristolochia nashii Kearney 1894. 
Endodeca bartonii Endodeca bartonii Klotzsch, Monatsber. Königl. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1859: 600. 1860, nom. illegit.Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus 1753. 
Endodeca hastata Endodeca hastata Rafinesque, Fl. Tellur. 4: 99. 1838 ("1836").Aristolochia hastata Nuttall 1818, non Kunth 1817. 
Endodeca polyrrhizos Endodeca polyrrhizos Klotzsch, Monatsber. Königl. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1859: 601. 1860, nom. illegit.Endodeca hastata Rafinesque 1838; Aristolochia hastata Nuttall 1818, non Kunth 1817. 
Endodeca serpentaria var. hastata Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque, var. hastata (Rafinesque) C. F. Reed, Phytologia 50: 461. 1982.Endodeca hastata Rafinesque 1838; Aristolochia hastata Nuttall 1818, non Kunth 1817. 
Pistolochia serpentaria Pistolochia serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque, Fl. Tellur. 4: 98. 1838 ("1836").Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus 1753. 
Psophiza undulata Psophiza undulata Rafinesque, Fl. Tellur. 4: 99. 1838 ("1836"). FLORIDA
Aristolochia hastata Aristolochia hastata Nuttall, Gen. N. Amer. Pl. 2: 200. 1818, non Kunth 1817.  
Aristolochia nashii Aristolochia nashii Kearney, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 21: 485. 1894. FLORIDA: Lake Co.: Lake Ella, 1894, Nash 1139 (holotype: US; isotypes: GH, NY, UC).
Aristolochia sagittata    
Aristolochia serpentaria ARISTOLOCHIA SERPENTARIA Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 961. 1753.  

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Autauga, Baldwin, Barbour, Bibb, Bullock, Butler, Chilton, Choctaw, Clarke, Clay, Cleburne, Coffee, Colbert, Conecuh, Covington, Dale, Dallas, DeKalb, Etowah, Hale, Henry, Houston, Jackson, Jefferson, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Lee, Lowndes, Macon, Madison, Marengo, Marshall, Mobile, Monroe, Montgomery, Pike, Shelby, Sumter, Talladega, Tallapoosa

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: AMAL, AUA, JSU, TROY, UNA, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: -

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
TROY000014457 Monroe 26 Apr 2008 Brian R. Keener
4250
TROY
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
UWAL0017439 Marengo 20 Apr 2013 J. Kevin England
4156
UWAL
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
TROY000039301 Conecuh 15 Jun 2014 Alvin R. Diamond
25202
TROY
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
JSU120090 Marshall 13 Jun 1976 R. D. Whetstone
8466
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
JSU120093 Talladega 9 Sep 1994 J. M. Ballard
4935
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
JSU120081 Jackson 27 Jun 1998 K. R. Brodeur
941
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
JSU120085 Lauderdale 20 Jul 1996 R. D. Whetstone
18235
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
49796AUA_ACC Dallas 23 APR 1989 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
5869
AUA
ENDODECA SERPENTARIA (L.) RAF.
JSU120078 Etowah 14 Jun 1976 T. A. Atkinson
1686
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
61350AUA_ACC Choctaw 4 MAY 1995 CROUCH, VIRGINIA E.
1363
AUA
ENDODECA SERPENTARIA (L.) RAF.
51215AUA_ACC Covington 5 MAY 1990 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
6897
AUA
ENDODECA SERPENTARIA (L.) RAF.
TROY000035694 Barbour 01 Jun 2012 Eric W. Minton
23
TROY
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
JSU120074 DeKalb 2 May 1986 C. L. Lawler
235
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
TROY000034451 Monroe 10 Apr 2010 Alvin R. Diamond
21241a
TROY
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
JSU120066 Bibb 13 May 1983 R. D. Whetstone
13393
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
UWAL0000335 Monroe 26 Apr 2008 Brian R. Keener
4250
UWAL
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
JSU120084 Jefferson 28 May 1984 J. P. Barber
654
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
JSU120076 Etowah 23 Apr 1994 L. M. Hodge
1207
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
JSU120069 Bibb 22 Jul 1982 R. D. Whetstone
11546
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
52784AUA_ACC Bullock 27 MAY 1991 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
7398
AUA
ENDODECA SERPENTARIA (L.) RAF.
46137AUA_ACC Conecuh 11 JUL 1987 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
3436
AUA
ENDODECA SERPENTARIA (L.) RAF.
52193AUA_ACC Houston 6 JUN 1992 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
8321
AUA
ENDODECA SERPENTARIA (L.) RAF.
TROY000001229 Coffee 01 May 2001 Brian H. Martin
1045
TROY
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
JSU120086 Lawrence 17 Sep 1994 D. D. Spaulding
6377
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
TROY000028383 Butler 12 Apr 2009 Alvin R. Diamond
20573
TROY
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
JSU120068 Bibb 13 May 1983 R. D. Whetstone
13408
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
UWAL0000336 Sumter 26 Apr 1998 Brian R. Keener
727
UWAL
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
TROY000020568 Henry 19 Apr 2005 Robert Kral
96139
TROY
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
JSU120083 Jackson 22 May 1996 R. D. Whetstone
17680
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
49190AUA_ACC Pike 3 MAY 1988 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
4630
AUA
ENDODECA SERPENTARIA (L.) RAF.
JSU120091 Shelby 4 Apr 1993 R. D. Whetstone
16287
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
AMAL00020012 Monroe 06 Apr 2011 T. Wayne Barger
RH-57
AMAL
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
UNA00064780 Sumter 20 Apr 2006 Brian R. Keener
2838
UNA
Aristolochia serpentaria L.
UWAL0009899 Macon 16 Jun 2010 Roger Birkhead
s.n.
UWAL
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
JSU120073 DeKalb 15 May 1996 R. D. Whetstone
17526
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
TROY000001230 Coffee 04 Sep 2000 Brian H. Martin
951
TROY
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
JSU120089 Marshall 23 Apr 1993 D. D. Spaulding
3495
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
63574AUA_ACC Lee 1 JUL 2003 LOEWENSTEIN, NANCY J.
AUA
ENDODECA SERPENTARIA (L.) RAF.
UWAL0001003 Marengo 22 Apr 2010 Brian R. Keener
5827
UWAL
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
JSU120079 Etowah 23 May 1984 R. D. Whetstone
14024
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
JSU120072 DeKalb 9 Jun 1976 R. D. Whetstone
8446
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
UWAL0033678 Madison 21 May 2016 Brian R. Keener
9614
UWAL
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
AMAL00006067 Colbert 22 Aug 2013 T. Wayne Barger
FH-88
AMAL
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
UNA00029791 Clarke _ Jun _ Charles Mohr
s.n.
UNA
Aristolochia serpentaria L.
AMAL00001718 Chilton 13 Apr 2008 Daniel D. Spaulding
12834
AMAL
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
TROY000001233 Pike 23 Apr 2001 Brian H. Martin
1041
TROY
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
JSU120087 Marshall 30 May 1993 D. D. Spaulding
4061
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
JSU120064 Baldwin 9 Jul 2000 D. D. Spaulding
10773
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
UWAL0002952 Lowndes 20 May 2010 Brian R. Keener
6006
UWAL
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
AMAL00014619 Henry 19 Apr 2005 R. Kral
96139
AMAL
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
TROY000014143 Hale 09 May 2003 Alvin R. Diamond
13896
TROY
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
AMAL00011437 Tallapoosa 27 Apr 2006 T. Wayne Barger
179
AMAL
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
UWAL0011777 Autauga 03 May 2013 Brian R. Keener
7810
UWAL
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
TROY000028111 Butler 20 May 2009 Alvin R. Diamond
20737
TROY
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
JSU120088 Marshall 11 Jun 1993 R. D. Whetstone
s.n.
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
JSU120082 Jackson 29 Jun 1996 J. M. Ballard
6205
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
2048AUA_ACC Lee MAY 1921 ANONYMOUS
AUA
ENDODECA SERPENTARIA (L.) RAF.
JSU120075 DeKalb 2 Aug 1976 R. D. Whetstone
8834
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
51575AUA_ACC Dale 19 JUL 1989 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
5974
AUA
ENDODECA SERPENTARIA (L.) RAF.
JSU120080 Etowah 10 Aug 1974 T. A. Atkinson
574
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
62012AUA_ACC Choctaw 22 JUN 1994 CROUCH, VIRGINIA E.
1067
AUA
ENDODECA SERPENTARIA (L.) RAF.
UWAL0015504 Lowndes 16 Apr 2014 Brian R. Keener
8326
UWAL
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
TROY000001228 Coffee 26 Mar 2005 Brian H. Martin
1215
TROY
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
UNA00048651 Mobile _ May 1878 Charles Mohr
s.n.
UNA
Aristolochia serpentaria L.
AMAL00015006 Dallas 23 May 2007 Daniel D. Spaulding
12616
AMAL
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
JSU120070 Clay 14 Jun 1993 J. M. Ballard
2799
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
AMAL00016252 Lauderdale 11 May 2009 Brian D. Holt
SC-53
AMAL
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
AMAL00005845 Madison 06 Sep 1997 S. J. Threlkeld
1195
AMAL
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
TROY000001231 Conecuh 11 May 2002 Alvin R. Diamond
13155
TROY
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
TROY000038016 Bullock 09 May 2013 Bailee Dykes
1614
TROY
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
JSU120065 Bibb 13 May 1983 C. F. Nixon
338
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
UWAL0009730 Sumter 11 Mar 2012 Brian R. Keener
6938
UWAL
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
TROY000027706 Montgomery 14 May 2009 Alvin R. Diamond
20687
TROY
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
JSU120077 Etowah 7 May 1995 L. M. Hodge
4220
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
JSU120092 Talladega 22 Apr 1995 J. M. Ballard
5462
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
UNA00045930 Henry 28 May 1998 John R. MacDonald
11300
UNA
Aristolochia serpentaria L.
JSU120067 Bibb 18 May 1984 R. D. Whetstone
13931
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
JSU120071 Cleburne 18 Jul 1995 S. E. Hruska
775
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
70193AUA_ACC Macon 16 JUN 2010 BIRKHEAD, ROGER
AUA
ENDODECA SERPENTARIA (L.) RAF.
UWAL0012981 Butler 07 May 2013 Alvin R. Diamond
24029
UWAL
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
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