Ambrosia trifida

Family:ASTERACEAE
Species:Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
Common Name:Giant Ragweed; Great Ragweed
Habitat:Open, disturbed sites.
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Herb
Duration:Annual
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:**
Plant Notes:Giant Ragweed is a native herbaceous annual in the Sunflower family (Asteraceae). It can be found throughout Alabama. Giant Ragweed occurs along rivers and streams, along woodland margins, and in disturbed areas. It is an annual with a tap root. The stems are erect, branched, 3-12 feet in height, green in color, and ribbed. The leaves are opposite, petiolate, ovate to elliptic in outline, (un-lobed) palmately 3-5 lobed, with serrate margins. The leaves are pubescent with stiff hairs and gland dotted. Flowers are in heads. The staminate heads are arranged in terminal spikes or racemes. Pistillate heads occur in fascicles in the axils of the upper leaves. The staminate heads are stalked with a saucer shaped involucre. The staminate heads have 3-25-disc flowers, and the pistillate heads have a single disc flower. The flowers are yellowish-green in color. The fruit is a dark brown, beaked nutlet with a tough seed coat. The seed may remain dormant in the soil for many years awaiting a disturbance. The pollen of this plant is a major cause of hay fever. Giant Ragweed was cultivated by pre-Columbian Native Americans for the edible oil obtained from the seed. Seed from archaeological sites are 3-4 times as large as those of wild plants occurring today, indicating that they were selected for their size.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Native, FAC (NWI)
References:**

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyASTERACEAE - Aster family
Genus Ambrosia
Species Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus - Giant Ragweed; Great Ragweed

Citation

Citation AMBROSIA TRIFIDA Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 988. 1753.
Basionym: **
Type: Without data (lectotype: LINN 1114.1). Lectotypified by W. W. Payne, Trans. Wisconsin Acad. Sci. 58: 366. 1970.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Ambrosia aptera Ambrosia aptera de Candolle, Prodr. 5: 527. 1836.  
Ambrosia integrifolia Ambrosia integrifolia Muhlenberg ex Willdenow, Sp. Pl. 4: 375. 1803. PENNSYLVANIA: Without data, Muhlenberg 442 (holotype: B-W).
Ambrosia simplicifolia Ambrosia simplicifolia Walter, Fl. Carol. 231. 1788. SOUTH CAROLINA
Ambrosia striata Ambrosia striata Rydberg, Brittonia 1: 96. 1931. COLORADO: Weld Co.: Windson, Aug 1901, Osterhout 2338 (holotype: NY).
Ambrosia trifida var. integrifolia Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus, var. integrifolia (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) Torrey & A. Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 2: 290. 1842.Ambrosia integrifolia Muhlenberg ex Willdenow 1803. 
Ambrosia trifida var. aptera Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus, var. aptera (de Candolle) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 305. 1891.Ambrosia aptera de Candolle 1836. 
Ambrosia trifida var. heterophylla Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus, var. heterophylla Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 305. 1891. OHIO: Hamilton Co.: Cincinnati
Ambrosia trifida var. normalis Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus, var. normalis Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 305. 1891, nom. inadmiss.Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus 1753. 
Ambrosia trifida var. polyploidea Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus, var. polyploidea J. Rousseau, Naturaliste Canad. 71: 215. 1944. CANADA: Quebec: Near Montreal, cult. at Montreal, 23 Oct 1938, Morin et al. s.n. (holotype: MTJB).
Ambrosia trifida var. texana Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus, var. texana Scheele, Linnaea 22: 156. 1849. TEXAS
Ambrosia variabilis Ambrosia variabilis Rydberg, Brittonia 1: 97. 1931. SOUTH DAKOTA: Lawrence Co.: Deadwood, 4 Aug 1913, Carr 124 (holotype: NY).

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Autauga, Bibb, Blount, Bullock, Butler, Calhoun, Choctaw, Cleburne, Conecuh, Coosa, Covington, Crenshaw, Dale, DeKalb, Escambia, Etowah, Fayette, Greene, Hale, Jackson, Jefferson, Lauderdale, Lee, Lowndes, Madison, Marengo, Marshall, Monroe, Montgomery, Morgan, Perry, Pike, Randolph, Shelby, St. Clair, Talladega, Tuscaloosa, Walker, Washington, Wilcox

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: AMAL, AUA, JSU, SAMF, TROY, UNA, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: -

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
TROY000001386 Crenshaw 07 Sep 2000 Alvin R. Diamond
12089
TROY
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
AUA000001336 Shelby 25 SEP 1977 SESSLER, ANN H.
1870
AUA
AMBROSIA TRIFIDA L.
UWAL0034171 Walker 06 Sep 2015 Dan Spaulding
14447
UWAL
Ambrosia trifida L.
JSU102974 Jefferson 14 Sep 1985 J. P. Barber
1767
JSU
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
AUA000001326 Crenshaw 12 SEP 1996 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
10520
AUA
AMBROSIA TRIFIDA L.
UNA00054024 Blount 6 Sep 1997 Brian R. Keener
371
UNA
Ambrosia trifida L.
AMAL00002606 Madison 22 Sep 1997 S. J. Threlkeld
1199
AMAL
Ambrosia trifida L.
TROY000015970 Marengo 19 Sep 2008 J. Kevin England
1153
TROY
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
UWAL0013772 Fayette 07 Sep 2009 Steve Younghance
279
UWAL
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
JSU102981 Talladega 14 Sep 1997 J. M. Ballard
7813
JSU
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
UWAL0013154 Morgan 10 Sep 2011 J. Kevin England
3135
UWAL
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
AMAL00002608 Montgomery 16 Sep 2001 A. R. Diamond
12663
AMAL
Ambrosia trifida L.
AMAL00021312 Marengo 19 Sep 2008 J. Kevin England
1153
AMAL
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
TROY000015032 Coosa 16 Sep 2005 Alvin R. Diamond
15763
TROY
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
AMAL00002605 Calhoun 04 Sep 1989 Daniel Spaulding
277
AMAL
Ambrosia trifida L.
JSU102965 Choctaw 13 Sep 1997 J. W. Higginbotham
300
JSU
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
AUA000001325 Coosa 16 SEP 2005 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
15763
AUA
AMBROSIA TRIFIDA L.
AUA000001330 Lee 12 AUG 2005 HANSEN, CURTIS J.
2075
AUA
AMBROSIA TRIFIDA L.
AMAL00002607 Madison 24 Aug 1996 S. J. Threlkeld
866
AMAL
Ambrosia trifida L.
TROY000037720 Fayette 07 Sep 2009 Steve Younghance
279
TROY
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
AUA000030070 Morgan 6 SEP 2015 ENGLAND, J. KEVIN
5676
AUA
AMBROSIA TRIFIDA L.
UNA00044783 Greene 17 Sep 1966 H. Naugle
G 179
UNA
Ambrosia trifida L.
AUA000001332 Lowndes 10 SEP 1970 MOORE, HAROLD D.
1154
AUA
AMBROSIA TRIFIDA L.
AMAL00010595 Coosa 16 Sep 2005 A. R. Diamond
15763
AMAL
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
UNA00022765 Hale 29 Aug 1993 Chris G. Haynes
s.n.
UNA
Ambrosia trifida L.
TROY000014560 Monroe 17 Sep 2007 Alvin R. Diamond
18140
TROY
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
JSU102969 Jackson 20 Aug 1998 K. R. Brodeur
1308
JSU
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
JSU102968 Etowah 20 Aug 1994 L. M. Hodge
3077
JSU
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
AUA000001331 Lee 12 AUG 2005 HANSEN, CURTIS J.
2075
AUA
AMBROSIA TRIFIDA L.
TROY000030745 Wilcox 29 Aug 1960 Samuel B. Jones, Jr.
212
TROY
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
AUA000001334 Perry 8 SEP 1976 SESSLER, ANN H.
587
AUA
AMBROSIA TRIFIDA L.
AUA000001322 Autauga 7 SEP 1970 MOORE, HAROLD D.
829
AUA
AMBROSIA TRIFIDA L.
AMAL00004505 Butler 17 Sep 2006 A. R. Diamond
16906
AMAL
Ambrosia trifida L.
AUA000001327 Escambia 1999 SEARCY, DARRYL
AUA
AMBROSIA TRIFIDA L.
UNA00044784 Tuscaloosa 2 Oct 1975 Fred K. Hoener
1310
UNA
Ambrosia trifida L.
JSU102971 Jefferson 07 Sep 1984 J. P. Barber
1050
JSU
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
UNA00062212 Pike 9 Oct 2003 Alvin R. Diamond
14231
UNA
Ambrosia trifida L.
TROY000001383 Butler 14 Oct 2006 Alvin R. Diamond
17083
TROY
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
AUA000001324 Conecuh 25 SEP 1987 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
3649
AUA
AMBROSIA TRIFIDA L.
TROY000001385 Covington 05 Oct 1999 John R. MacDonald
13580
TROY
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
JSU102964 Calhoun 09 Sep 1980 David G. Snow
102
JSU
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
TROY000001387 Dale 28 Sep 2000 Tiffany Pennington
1032
TROY
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
UWAL0030484 Morgan 06 Sep 2015 England, J. Kevin
5676
UWAL
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus var. trifida
UNA00013727 Wilcox 26 Sep 1880 Eugene A. Smith
s.n.
UNA
Ambrosia trifida L.
JSU102975 Marshall 04 Sep 1992 D. D. Spaulding
2804
JSU
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
TROY000036176 Bullock 31 Aug 2012 Bailee Dykes
1184
TROY
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
TROY000001384 Butler 17 Sep 2006 Alvin R. Diamond
16906
TROY
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
JSU102983 Talladega 02 Sep 1983 R. D. Whetstone
13613
JSU
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
JSU102976 Monroe 12 Sep 1997 R. D. Whetstone
18464
JSU
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
SAMF0005201 Jefferson 09 Sep 2003 L. J. Davenport
2956
SAMF
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
AUA000001328 Greene 8 SEP 1970 MOORE, HAROLD D.
917
AUA
AMBROSIA TRIFIDA L.
UNA00022770 Marengo 9 Sep 1993 Chris G. Haynes
s.n.
UNA
Ambrosia trifida L.
JSU102980 Shelby 11 Oct 1997 D. D. Spaulding
10179
JSU
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
JSU102982 Talladega 23 Aug 1992 J. M. Ballard
551
JSU
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
UNA00044782 Greene 28 Sep 1962 Roland M. Harper
4538
UNA
Ambrosia trifida L.
TROY000001389 Pike 09 Oct 2003 Alvin R. Diamond
14231
TROY
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
UNA00044781 Hale 2 Aug 1965 Sherrie E. Maginness
s.n.
UNA
Ambrosia trifida L.
JSU102977 Monroe 12 Sep 1997 R. D. Whetstone
18515
JSU
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
SAMF0005200 Jefferson 23 Sep 2003 L. J. Davenport
2980
SAMF
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
AUA000001337 Washington 9 SEP 1970 MOORE, HAROLD D.
992
AUA
AMBROSIA TRIFIDA L.
UNA00060559 Bibb 11 Sep 1985 Charles N. Horn
839
UNA
Ambrosia trifida L.
JSU102966 Cleburne 15 Oct 1996 S. E. Hruska
1497
JSU
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
AUA000001323 Bibb 16 SEP 1976 SESSLER, ANN H.
727
AUA
AMBROSIA TRIFIDA L.
JSU102973 Jefferson 14 Sep 1985 J. P. Barber
1767
JSU
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
AUA000001333 Montgomery 1 SEP 1990 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
7093
AUA
AMBROSIA TRIFIDA L.
UWAL0000437 Marengo 19 Sep 2008 J. Kevin England
1153
UWAL
Ambrosia trifida L.
AUA000001335 Pike 27 SEP 1994 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
9393
AUA
AMBROSIA TRIFIDA L.
UWAL0011547 Bullock 31 Aug 2012 Bailee Dykes
1184
UWAL
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
JSU102970 Jackson 23 Aug 1992 F. W. Clearman, Jr
286
JSU
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
AMAL00021417 Randolph 17 Aug 1988 C. F. Nixon
4170
AMAL
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
AMAL00008731 Pike 09 Oct 2003 A. R. Diamond
14231
AMAL
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
UNA00044780 Bibb 11 Sep 1985 Charles N. Horn
839
UNA
Ambrosia trifida L.
JSU102963 Calhoun 05 Oct 1986 C. L. Lawler
1343
JSU
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
TROY000001388 Montgomery 16 Sep 2001 Alvin R. Diamond
12663
TROY
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
JSU102967 DeKalb 02 Aug 1976 R. D. Whetstone
8832
JSU
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
AUA000028947 Lauderdale 13 AUG 2009 HOLT, BRIAN D.
SC-143
AUA
AMBROSIA TRIFIDA L.
JSU102978 St. Clair 03 Sep 1982 R. D. Whetstone
12099
JSU
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
JSU102972 Jefferson 17 Sep 1983 R. D. Whetstone
12454
JSU
Ambrosia trifida Linnaeus
AUA000001329 Hale 8 SEP 1970 MOORE, HAROLD D.
893
AUA
AMBROSIA TRIFIDA L.
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